Bi-annual training programs are designed to achieve long-term goals that are spread out through macrocycles during the year. At different times of the year, volume is increased and intensity is decreased, and as competition time approaches, volume is decreased and intensity is increased. In order for a training plan to be most effective, a periodization plan must be developed per individual athlete and sport. Periodization training focuses on a progressive cycle of various techniques that are designed for specific periods throughout the year. Individual athletes who compete in various sport year round benefit from having a well developed periodization program that focuses on strength and conditioning at the proper peaks of their season (year), and are easily adjusted according to the athlete's ability and outcome (Bompa & Buzzichelli, 2015).
“Each periodized program should have a goal. It should be specific to the sport and/or the athlete. For periodization to work, it must be followed strictly” (Sandler, n.d.). Periodization are designed to meet the needs for each individual to build a good, steady program. Most structured athletes have a predetermined season, that allots a specific amount of time to train in a particular sport during the season, therefore a periodized program is designed specifically for this type of athlete. Recreational athletes do not have this option, therefore a periodized training program is designed for the athlete throughout the (calendar) year. At this time, the coach focuses on preseason, season, and offseason training. Each phase is weighed heavily on the competition schedule, therefore, athletes who are engaged in several various sports year round must plan each phase properly, and have plenty of down time for rest and recovery (at the end of each phase). Determining the sport and the amount of times an athlete must peak throughout their season(s) will determine the kind of annual plan developed (bi-cycle and tri-cycle). Athletes who are engaged in training past a certain amount of time, may opt out of wanting to use a periodization program due to an increase of muscle hypertrophy, exhaustion, and injury. At this point, a proper transitional phase must happen for athletes who extend training time. Surpassing a specific amount of time training on strength and conditioning may eventually reach a plateau. To build a proper physiological foundation “strength training is an essential element in a coach’s quest to produce good athletes” (Bompa & Buzzichelli, 2015, pg. 229).
Bompa, T.O., & Buzzichelli, C.A. (2015). Periodization training for sports (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Sandler, D. (n.d.). A Sample Program for Periodizing the General Athlete. NSCA’s Performance Training Journal, 1(9).